INDIA FIGHTS FOR INDEPENDENCE;AND HISTORY OF INDIAN FLAG;India’s flag is a tricolor standard, with bands of saffron, white, and dark green. The saffron represents courage, sacrifice, patriotism, and renunciation. It is also the color of the Hindu people. The green stands for faith, fertility and the land; it is the color of the Islam religion. The white is in the center, symbolizing the hope for unity and peace. In the center of the white band is a blue wheel with 24 spokes. This is the Ashoka Chakra (or “Wheel of Law”). The Chakra represents the continuing progress of the nation and the importance of justice in life. It also appears on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka “

Madame Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) our radical firebrand, was exiled from India and Britain and lived in France. Bhikaiji was a tireless propagandist for Indian Independence

The Berlin committee
flag, first raised by
Bhikaiji Cama in 1907
Called the ‘Saptarishi Flag’, this was hoisted in Stuttgart at the International Socialist Congress held on August 22, 1907
Associated with the names of Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak, this flag was hoisted at the Congress session in Calcutta during the ‘Home Rule Movement’.

The flag used during the
Home Rule movement
in 1917
In the year 1921, a young man from Andhra presented this flag to Gandhiji for approval. It was only after Gandhiji’s suggestion that the white strip and the charkha were added. 

Unofficial flag of India
in 1906 The flag that was first hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square in Calcutta.

1913The Ghadar Party Flag

Ghadar Party
Preceded byPacific Coast Hindustan Association
IdeologyRevolutionary Socialism
Indian Nationalism
Official coloursRedSaffron and Green

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The Ghadar Party flag was also used in the United States as a symbol for India for a short period of time.In August 1913, Southasian farmworkers and students (primarily Punjabi migrants) gathered in Stockton, California, to form the Ghadar Party. They were angry at British imperialism, but also frustrated with the Indian National Congress. ‘Freedom will not come through supplication,’ their poets sang. ‘Political power will not come by appeal/ Don’t offer cowardly petitions/ Lift up the sword, they will not remain/ What have your petitions wrought?/ Brutal foreigners have plundered our homeland.’ The sentiment of complete independence thus came almost two decades before the Congress took it to heart. ‘Nation after nation are ready to rise up,’ the Ghadar Party’s newspaper proclaimed in July 1914. ‘Your voice has reached China, Japan, Manila, Sumatra, Fiji, Java, Singapore, Egypt, Paris, South Africa, South America, East Africa and Panama.’
IN 1917…..
The Home Rule Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak adopted a new flag in 1917. The flag had union jack at the top, near hoist. The rest of the flag contains five red and four green strips.
It had seven stars on it in the shape of “Saptarishi” Constellation which is sacred one for Hindus. It also had a crescent moon, star at the top fly end. This flag didn’t become popular in masses.

IN 1921…..As Mahatma Gandhi communities of India to be represented in the flag of the nation, so a new flag was designed. At the top was white then green and at the bottom was red color. In this flag white symbolized minority communities of India, green was for Muslims and the red one was for Hindu and Sikh communities. The “Charkha” was drawn across all the bands symbolizing the unification of these communities.

The flag unofficially
adopted in 1921  IN 1931……Some people were not at all happy with the communal interpretation of the flag. Keeping all this in a view a new flag was designed. This color signified combined spirit of Hindu yogis as well as Muslim dervish. In another flag by Pingali Venkayya had three color. Saffron was at the top Followed by white in the middle and green being the lowermost. The “Charkha” was at the center of white color. This flag was passed at the meeting of Congress Committee in 1931 and was adopted as the official flag of the Committee.

1942 1945[subhas chandra bose with Indian soldiers of 'Azad Hind'-IN SINGAPORE]

IN 1947…..

When India got independence, a committee headed by Rajinder Prasad was formed to discuss the National Flag of India and they decided to adopt the flag of Indian National Congress with suitable modifications as the flag of India. As a result the flag of 1931 was adopted as Indian flag but “Charkha” in the middle was replaced by “Chakra” (wheel) and hence our national Flag came into being.

"A flag is a necessity for all nations. Millions have died for it. It is no doubt a kind of idolatry which would be a sin to destroy. For, a flag represents an Ideal The unfurling of the Union Jack evokes in the English breast sentiments whose strength it is difficult to measure. The Stars and Stripes mean a world to the Americans. The Star and the Crescent will call forth the best bravery in Islam."

"It will be necessary for us Indians Muslims, Christians Jews, Parsis, and all others to whom India is their home-to recognize a common flag to live and to die for."

- Mahatma Gandhi

The Indian National Flag came into being in its present form at the meeting of Constitutional Assembly on 22nd July 1947.

Pandit Nehru introduced the Indian National Flag in the Constituent Assembly on 22nd

 July 1947, he said,  “ … this flag that I have the honour to present you is not, I hope and trust, a flag of the dominion over anybody, but a flag of freedom not only for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people who may see it. And wherever it may go – and I hope it will go far- not only where Indians dwell as our ambassadors and ministers but across the far seas where it may be carried by the Indian ships, wherever it may go, it will bring a message of  comradeship, a message that India wants to be friend with every country of the world and India wants to help any people who seek freedom. That hope will be the message of this flag everywhere…”.

[Red Ensign was established as the proper colours for the British ships by a proclamation in 1674. The Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 brought up to date the law concerning the wearing of ensigns by British ships. Prior to this many ensigns of various designs were in use.]

 New Purna Swaraj (Total Independence) Flag: 1931-1947

The new Purna Swaraj Flag immediately acquired irresistible power, it betokened fearlessness and faith amongst the Freedom fighters in their ultimate victory in gaining Independence in 1947.
The flag adopted in 1931 and used by theProvisional Government of Free India during the Second World War.
 The Patriotic cover shows the effigy of Mahatma Gandhiflanked by the new Tricolour flags and the legend ‘Vande Mataram’ in Tamil.The envelope is chopped with Japanese censored mark and was postally carried in Malaya then under Japanese occupation during World War II (Postage stamps were duly affixed at the back) 

  “Kumaran's Hand Holding the Flag” Postmark fromTirupur issued on August 15, 1997 commemorating the 50th. Anniversary. of Independence  
  Kodi Kaatha Kumaran (1904 - 1932)
Kumaran - The protector of the Flag, on January 10, 1932, Kodi Kaatha Kumaran, a brave young mill-hand of Tirupur, Madras (now Tamil Nadu) was leading a labour resistance procession holding the tricolour in his hand, when police attacked Kumaran brutally he exhibited an exemplary act of defiance against the British violence by holding the Tricolourup while raising the freedom cry ‘Vande Matarm’. Kumaran succumbed to his  injuries next day. 

 Sanjiva Nijalingappa actively participated and courted arrest in the 'Flag Satyagraha' organised by the Mysore Congress in April 1938 at Shivapura near Maddur, Karnataka. 
 On August 8, 1942 Mahatma Gandhi gave the historic call “Quit India” in Bombay and raised the slogan “Do or Die” for the cause. 
 On August 9, following the arrest of most of the prominent leaders, Aruna Asaf Ali came forward and hoisted the National Flag at Gowalia Tank Maidan (Renamed, August Kranti Maidan) in Bombay (now Mumbai).
 Matangini Hazra was an active participant of the Quit India Movement at the age of 73. On 29th. Sept, 1942 while she was leading a procession in Tamluk, Bengal and advanced with the Tricolour flag in her hands, a shower of bullets from the police felled her, but the flag was still flying in her hands unsullied. 
 The August Kranti at Ballia,under the leadership of Chittu Pandey was an inspiring chapter of the “Quit India” Movement 
 The bronze sculpture (by D. P. Roychoudhury) depicts theseven students who lost their lives while attempting to hoist the flag atop old Patna Secretariat building during Quit India Movement. The seven students, who's names are engraved on Martyrs’ Memorial, Patna.;* Umakant Prasad Sinha - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Ramanand Singh - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Satish Prasad Jha - Patna Collegiate School, class X * Jalpati Kumar - Bihar National College, 2nd year * Devipada Choudhry - Miller High English School, class IX * Rajendra Singh - Patna High English School, matric class * Ramgovind Singh - Punpun High English School, matric class.

The official flag of the Congress during the Independence struggle.

 Some more interesting items onSwaraj flag (1921-1931)(from the collection ofSri G. Biswas of Kolkata)

The Flag Committee -1931 headed by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramyya after going through various suggestions as received from various sources came up with an entirely new design, allSaffron Flag charged with a brown Charkha at the top left corner (canton) of the flag. The Flag design recommended by the Flag Committee failed to create any consensus amongst the Congress members in general and Muslims members in particular. The proposed flag was summarily rejected by the Congress Working Committee for the reason that the flag design interfered too much with the flag. As a result the all Saffron Flag never saw the light of day.  

Mahatma Gandhi shares a moment of levity with Lord Mountbatten two weeks before Britain returns independence to India. New Delhi, India. August 1st, 1947.
Nehru presented the National flag to the constituent assembly on July 22, 1947
Governor General Lord Mountbatten salutes India's National flag as Edwina Mountbatten and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, look on during India's first Independence Day celebrations in New Delhi.

Crowds along the Red Fort where Nehru addresses independent India for the first time and hoists the national flag. Freedom after decades of struggle and hope, sacrifice and idealism. "A moment, which comes but rarely in history, when an age ends, when the soul of a nation suppressed, finds utterance." August 16, 1947.

A portrait on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, the founder of the Indian National Army, at Independence Day celebrations in New Delhi on Aug. 15, 1947.

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