In pictures: Felice Beato's 19th Century Delhi
Felice A Beato, the celebrated 19th Century photographer, visited Delhi in 1858. A collection of his rare pictures appears in Beato's Delhi, a new book by Penguin/Viking India. This is Ludlow Castle, a building in the Civil Lines area and home of a residency surgeon.
The Sabzi Mandi, or vegetable wholesale market, was located beyond the city wall, along the Grand Trunk Road to Punjab. British forces tore down walls and buildings in the area after rebels attacked during the Indian Mutiny of 1857.
The Kashmiri Gate was a double gateway to the walled city. It was built by a British engineer in 1835 and was the scene of a major assault by British forces during the mutiny. After 1857, the historic gate became a major draw for British tourists.
This "picket" was put up in the estate of Thomas Metcalfe, a British agent in the Mughal court, to deter rebels during the mutiny. However, in May 1857, the 1000-acre estate was attacked and burned by local villagers who regarded the property as theirs and appropriated by Metcalfe.
The Delhi Bank, which had many local men of business as shareholders, was set up in 1847 in a stately building. In May 1857, the manager of the bank, a Mr Beresford, defended himself and his family, but was killed by the rebels. British forces took back the bank in September.
Chandni Chowk (the Moonlit Market) is one of the oldest markets of Delhi. One account from 1859 talks about the market's "gay appearance", but in Beato's picture it is a sombre place. The house in the centre is typical of the happy eclecticism seen in most Indian houses then and later.
Delhi was stormed on 14 September 1857, but it was only six days later that the British forces captured and looted the King Bahadur Shah's Palace